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educação diferente

Projecto da responsabilidade da apie - Associação Portuguesa de Investigação Educacional - Educação Especial e Deficiência.

educação diferente

Projecto da responsabilidade da apie - Associação Portuguesa de Investigação Educacional - Educação Especial e Deficiência.

Pessoas com Deficiência

Trajetórias Sociais e Políticas

Educação física e deficiência visual

Convergências e possibilidades

INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY - EUA

Intellectual Disability (or "Intellectual Developmental Disorder") is characterized by deficits in general mental processes, including problem solvingreasoningplanningjudgmentabstract thinkingacademic learning, and acquiring new information.

For example, the individual might have difficulty planning future tasks, judging appropriate social behavior, or learning a new skill. Deficits in these mental processes result in impairments in personal independence and social responsibility, such as interpersonal communication (e.g., empathy)social engagementacademic successoccupational functioning, or other activities of daily living (ADL's; e.g., cooking meals, dressing, managing money).

Intellectual Disability is composed of three diagnostic criteria (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association):

Deficits in intellectual functions (e.g., reasoning, problem solving, planning, abstract thinking, judgment, academic learning, learning from experience), verified through clinical assessment and formal intelligence testing.

Deficits in adaptive functioning. These result in impairments in developmental and sociocultural standards and limit functioning in activities of daily life, such as social participation and independent living.

The onset of A and B occur during the developmental period (childhood or adolescence).

Intellectual Disability is further specified as either mild, moderate, severe, or profound based on the level of adaptive functioning.

Intellectual Disability is often associated with a range of other behaviors, including:

Difficulty modulating emotions, aggression (due to lack of communication skills).

Social inappropriateness.

Gullibility.

Altered motivation in school or work.

Intellectual Disability often co-occurs with other disorders, including:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

Anxiety Disorders

Impulsive Control Disorders

Cerebral Palsy.

Major Neurocognitive Disorder.

The prevalence of Intellectual Disability is about 1%.

 

People with intellectual disabilities may be vulnerable to substance use disorders. To read more:

Drug Abuse and Addiction
Addiction Treatment
Addiction Recovery

Global Developmental Delay

Global Developmental Delay refers to individuals younger than 5 who do not meet expected developmental milestones in several areas of intellectual functioning, but are unable to undergo formal standardized assessments (e.g., they are too young, are blind or deaf).

Causes of Intellectual Disabilities

The causes of Intellectual Disabilities vary, but generally include: genetics (sometimes a genetic syndrome, such as Down Syndrome), acquired illness (e.g., meningitis or encephalitis), or head trauma during the developmental period. Early interventions are available that may improve intellectual and adaptive functioning.

Michael W. Adamowicz - EUA